ITFORUM网站上,刊发了Johannes Cronje一篇文章,题目叫Paradigms Lost:Towards Integrating Objectivism and Constructivism。文章源引Reeves and Harmon 1994, 475-487的研究,认为,客观主义/行为主义与建构主义/认知主义并非截然对立,他们是2个极端,任何一种学习经验,只是处于这两种极端所构成的连续体上的一点。


客观主义(低)+建构主义(低): 混沌;
客观主义(低)+建构主义(高): 建构;
客观主义(高)+建构主义(低): 教学;
客观主义(高)+建构主义(高): 整合;


混沌:Chaos learning is low in objectivist elements.Learning is not determined by an outside entity, nor is it placed in any given, pre-determined sequence. Learning experiences are opportunistic.It is also low in constructivist elements. There is no clear evidence of support and cognitive scaffolding, nor is there a conscious effort to place learning in a real-world context.While it may seem, initially, that no proper learning could take place in this way, the truth is that most learning takes place in this way. A baby starting to talk chances on a sound that happens to get a certain result and upon repeating it, a consistency in response is discovered which reinforces the behaviour.Feedback is encouraging and the behaviour is reinforced. The child says whatever word it pleases, and is not consciously told that it should start with all words beginning with ‘a’. The learning environment needs not be supportive and encouraging, neither do scaffolds have to be provided.The little buzzing bug crawling on the child’s finger does not build on any previous knowledge when it stings it. The chaos quadrant, therefore, is the domain of serendipitous and incidental learning.It accounts for experience rather than studying or training and corresponds with what is traditionally written about ‘incidental learning’ and ‘immersion’ or ‘being thrown in at the deep end’.

教学:Instruction is high in instructivist elements and corresponds closely with what is traditionally written about behaviourism and instructivism. Instruction is high in pre-planned extrinsically determined learning practice.It is the domain of programmed learning, tutorials, lectures, and drill-and-practice. The principal outcome of instruction is ‘automaticity’ (Bloom 1986, 70-77). Its principal advantages are efficiency and focus. It is typically the domain of military instruction.

建构:Construction is designed in such a way that learners construct their own meaning intrinsically by building on previous knowledge. Its principal outcome is individual understanding. Its principal advantages are effectiveness and transfer. It is typically the domain of teachers supporting the ‘new paradigm’ and corresponds closely with what is traditionally written about constructivism, constructionism, and cognitivism.

整合:Integration is the combination of instruction and construction in appropriate conditions. Essentially this would be the domain of the instructional designer.Learning in this quadrant would depend on a goal analysis to determine the essential learning outcome.On this would follow analyses to determine the skills and sub-skills required for the outcome to be reached.The designer would then select both behavioural/instructionist and constructivist/cognitive learning events to achieve the desired outcome. Likewise evaluation of learning would range from de-contextualised testing of rote learning through authentic testing to portfolio assessment – depending on the performance criteria specified during the goal analysis.